## Categorization of Statistics Degrees through CIP Codes and Growth in Statistics-Related Degrees

Over the past 18 months, I've been writing about the growth in the number of statistics degrees being granted using data from the National Center for Education Statistics NCES. I've restricted my queries to five categories, which are represented by these five NCES CIP codes: 26.1102 – Biostatistics; 27.0501 - Statistics, General; 27.0502 - Mathematical Statistics and Probability; >27.0503 - Mathematics and Statistics; and 27.0599 - Statistics, Other. I generally use Statistics to be the last four categories, which NCES categorizes as 27.05 - Statistics. (See below for definitions and links.)

Because statistics is such a broad field and there are emerging areas like, for example, data science and analytics, it was suggested I use a blog entry to briefly discuss the CIP Codes and to consider statistics-related CIP codes. When one does look at the related degrees, one sees that some statistics-related degrees are also seeing strong growth.

Let me start with a chart of the four 27.05 categories, Biostatistics, and a related statistics degree: 27.9999 – Mathematics and Statistics – Other. For ease of comparison, the data below includes Bachelor's degrees categorized as 1st majors (and therefore misses another ~300 degrees.)
One can see in the chart that most of Bachelor's degrees are categorized as 27.0501 - Statistics, General and that this category captures most of the growth in Bachelor's degrees. One will also notice a big jump in 27.0502 - Mathematical Statistics and Probability between 2011 and 2012, which is due to one university changing how it categorizes its Bachelor's degrees. It's also worth noting that the 27.9999 category has increased 50% since 2003.

Figure 1: Statistics degrees by six CIP codes, 2003-2013. "Mathematics and statistics, other" is a separate category from 27.05 - Statistics.

The data for Master's and Doctorate degrees also show that the 27.0501 category captures most of the statistics degrees and their growth. Biostatistics also shows significant growth as seen in Figure 2 of Undergrad Statistics Degrees Continue Large Increases in 2012.

Now let me look at some of the other CIP categories that statistics or biostatistics departments may be granting (see below for explanations and links):

- 27.0301 - Applied Mathematics, General
- 27.0303 - Computational Mathematics
- 26.1101 - Biometry/Biometrics
- 26.1103 – Bioinformatics
- 52.1302 – Business Statistics.

For those curious about data science degrees, there is not a CIP code specific to data science, which means it is up to the granting institution to determine how to categorize such a degree.

The 2003-20013 degree data for these five categories are shown in Table 1. At the Bachelor's level (where only degrees categorized as 1st majors are shown), Applied Math, Bioinformatics, and Computational Math all exceed 100 degrees annually and have shown significant growth. At the Master's and Doctor's level, Applied Math and Bioinformatics, account for most of the degrees and have also shown strong growth. Figure 2 shows the growth for Applied Math and Figure 3 shows the growth for other degrees.

Looking at these data, it seems that statistics-related degrees are also seeing strong growth, especially bioinformatics and, to a lesser extent, computational math. For applied Math, it seems that only the Bachelor's and Master's level growth exceeds that of Math and Physics. As shown in the ASA Community Blog Entry, Statistical Science Degree Comparisons (updated through 2012), the number of math and physics Bachelor's degrees have increased 60% since 2003; Master's, 50%; and PhD's, 60-75%. For statistics, the respective increases are 180%, 105%, and 80% (105% for statistics and biostatistics.)

Bachelor's 1st Majors

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013Applied Mathematics General

878

886

999

981

894

912

1047

1018

1167

1330

1537

Bioinformatics

11

42

66

96

118

151

123

100

114

118

127

Biometry/Biometrics

23

16

16

19

21

21

32

20

30

24

37

Business Statistics

33

32

51

47

42

29

28

26

34

32

60

Computational Mathematics

33

84

77

69

54

59

63

89

76

66

127

Master's

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013Applied Mathematics General

389

452

511

516

526

508

637

678

768

823

977

Bioinformatics

21

109

182

203

149

123

197

244

257

308

293

Biometry/Biometrics

80

64

21

11

12

30

26

64

27

19

18

Business Statistics

26

14

28

20

25

18

35

34

34

58

33

Computational Mathematics

0

13

13

27

16

20

38

14

20

24

16

Doctor's

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013Applied Mathematics General

131

140

142

182

164

166

130

190

181

208

220

Bioinformatics

4

10

16

32

56

62

48

61

95

88

100

Biometry/Biometrics

17

14

18

15

16

9

16

10

15

13

12

Business Statistics

2

5

4

4

5

0

0

0

2

0

0

Computational Mathematics

0

7

7

10

11

15

22

18

6

13

28

Table 1: Bachelor's (1st Majors), Master's, and Doctorate degrees for five statistics-related degrees, 2003-2013. This table can also be found here.

Figure 2: Applied Math degrees, 2003-2013. At the Bachelor's and Master's level, the percentage growth in applied math degrees exceeds that of math and physics but lags statistics. At the Doctorate level, the percentage growth for these four categories is about the same (unless one includes biostatistics along with statistics.)

Figure 3: Statistics-related degrees showing growth over the last ten years.

For previous posts/articles on the growth of statistics degrees, AP Statistics, and postdocs, see the following (noting that #'s 5 & 6 include data on the number of women receiving degrees or the number of females taking AP Statistics):

- Doctorate Degrees in Statistics and Biostatistics and the Universities Granting Them, 2003-2012, ASA Community Blog Entry, February 13, 2014
- Largest Master's Programs in Statistics and Biostatistics, ASA Community Blog Entry, February 9, 2014
- Largest Doctorate Programs in Statistics and Biostatistics, ASA Community Blog Entry, February 9, 2014
- Statistical Science Degree Comparisons (updated through 2012), ASA Community Blog Entry, December 20, 2013.
- AP Statistics Sustains Strong Growth in 2013, ASA Community Blog Entry, October 4, 2013.
- Undergrad Statistics Degrees Continue Large Increases in 2012,
*Amstat News,*October, 2013. - Postdoc Numbers Small but on the Rise for Statistics, ASA Community Blog Entry, September 9, 2013
- Growing Numbers of Stats Degrees,
*Amstat News,*May, 2013. - See also this April 2007 Amstat News article, "Statistical Sciences Produces High Percentage of Female New Doctoral Recipients," by Rosanne Desmone: http://www.amstat.org/misc/2007_DesmoneFemalesInStats.pdf

CIP Codes for Biostatistics, statistics, and statistics-related degrees:

A program that focuses on the application of descriptive and inferential statistics to biomedical research and clinical, public health, and industrial issues related to human populations. Includes instruction in mathematical statistics, modeling, clinical trials methodology, disease and survival analysis, longitudinal analysis, missing data analysis, spatial analysis, computer tomography, biostatistics consulting, and applications to such topics as genetics, oncology, pharmacokinetics, physiology, neurobiology, and biophysics.

A general program that focuses on the relationships between groups of measurements, and similarities and differences, using probability theory and techniques derived from it. Includes instruction in the principles in probability theory, binomial distribution, regression analysis, standard deviation, stochastic processes, Monte Carlo method, Bayesian statistics, non-parametric statistics, sampling theory, and statistical techniques.

27.0502 - Mathematical Statistics and Probability

A program that focuses on the mathematical theory underlying statistical methods and their use. Includes instruction in probability theory parametric and non-parametric inference, sequential analysis, multivariate analysis, Bayesian analysis, experimental design, time series analysis, resampling, robust statistics, limit theory, infinite particle systems, stochastic processes, martingales, Markov processes, and Banach spaces.

27.0503 - Mathematics and Statistics

A program with a general synthesis of mathematics and statistics or a specialization which draws from mathematics and statistics. Includes instruction in calculus, linear algebra, numerical analysis and partial differential equations, discrete mathematics, probability theory, statistics, computing, and other related topics.

Any instructional program in statistics not listed above (in 27.0501, 27.0502, 27.0503).

27.9999 – Mathematics and Statistics – Other

Any instructional program in mathematics and statistics not listed above. E.g. Math Economics

27.0301 - Applied Mathematics, General

A program that focuses on the application of mathematics and statistics to the solution of functional problems in fields such as engineering and the applied sciences. Includes instruction in natural phenomena modeling continuum mechanics, reaction-diffusion, wave propagation, dynamic systems, numerical analysis, controlled theory, asymptotic methods, variation, optimization theory, inverse problems, and applications to specific scientific and industrial topics.

27.0303 - Computational Mathematics

A program that focuses on the application of mathematics to the theory, architecture, and design of computers, computational techniques, and algorithms. Includes instruction in computer theory, cybernetics, numerical analysis, algorithm development, binary structures, combinatorics, advanced statistics, and related topics.

A program that focuses on the application of statistics and other computational methods to the study of problems in the biological sciences and related fields in agriculture and natural resources. Includes instruction in computational biology, mathematical statistics, matrix algebra, applied calculus, experimental design, linear modeling, sampling theory, stochastic processes, spatial and temporal analysis, longitudinal analysis, sparse/unbalanced data and complex error, and applications to such topics as population genetics, animal breeding, forest genetics, population dynamics, wildlife biometry, ecology, and agricultural and natural resource management.

A program that focuses on the application of computer-based technologies and services to biological, biomedical, and biotechnology research. Includes instruction in algorithms, network architecture, principles of software design, human interface design, usability studies, search strategies, database management and data mining, digital image processing, computer graphics and animation, CAD, computer programming, and applications to experimental design and analysis and to specific quantitative, modeling, and analytical studies in the various biological specializations.

A program that focuses on the application of mathematical statistics to the description, analysis, and forecasting of business data. Includes instruction in statistical theory and methods, computer applications, data analysis and display, long- and short-term forecasting methods, and market performance analysis.

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Comments

Thank you very much for providing additional CIP codes for me to look at. I'll put those on my to-do list (and will post the results on this blog entry as an addendum.) Thanks also for pointing out the lack of CIP codes for important topics. I noted in my most recent blog entry that data science doesn't yet have CIP code.

Best,

Steve

Just my two cents.

With best regards, Stas

I looked at Master's and PhD's for the four categories you suggested: 45.0603 Econometrics, 42.2708 Psychometrics, 52.1402 Marketing Research, and 45.0102 Social Science Research Methodology and Quantitative Methods. For PhD's there were 13 PhD's in Psychometrics and 15 in Econometrics in 2013 but otherwise the number of PhD's were minimal. At the Master's level, the number for Marking Research has been around 100 for the last many years, without seeming to grow. Econometrics had 53 Master's in 2013, up from 9-11 several years ago.

I didn't look at Bachelor's because I assumed those were small.

Best,

Steve